[Solved] The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? ( UPSC GS-3 Mains 2017)
In the post-cold war period international terrorism has emerged as a threat to the international political system in which states are primary actors
Terrorism and national security:
• Terrorism is seeking to destabilize the geo-political order in several parts of the world. It is doing so in pursuit of an insane interpretation of faith and philosophy that is violently anarchic and allergic to diversity which is the essence of humanity and its habitat.
• The challenge of terrorism gets compounded when certain states use it as an instrument of their foreign policy. When the states begin covertly raising and indoctrinating bands of youth and equipping them with lethal weapons and weapon systems of mass destruction to promote their geo-political agenda, the magnitude of threat amplifies many times. It makes the task of defeating terrorism much more difficult • For India, terrorist threats range from Left Wing Extremism (LWE), ethnic separatism to religious militancy. Most of these groups draw their inspirations from the international terrorist networks, particularly the popular ones, whose atrocities aim to undermine national interests.
• Terrorist organizations, through repeated attacks, aim to challenge the basic feature of the Indian state and through such action, highlight its inability to provide security and protection to its citizens.
• They aim to create an environment of fear and distrust between groups and communities that differ on ideological background.
Sources of terrorist funding:
• A major part of funding for terrorism from external sources comes through – Counterfeit currency
– Drug trafficking
– Charities, NGOs usually facilitate Terror fundingthrough the following means
- By posing as legitimate entities.
- Exploiting legitimate entities as conduits for TF funds.
- Conceal or obscure legitimate diversion of funds meant for legalpurposes.
– The role of Safe Havens, Failed States, and State Sponsors • Whether through the absence of effective jurisdictional control, tolerance of terrorist organizations and their activities, or active support to terrorist organizations, safe havens, failed states and state sponsors create enabling environments or otherwise provide support to terrorist organizations.
• India’s federal counter-terrorism agency arrested seven members of Kashmir’s main separatist alliance recently on charges of receiving funds from Pakistan-based militant groups to wage attacks
• Links of former Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) and IndianMujahedeen (IM) cadres in India have also been established with financiers in the Gulf.
• Internal funding:
– Extortion and Taxation
• The biggest source of internal funding for terrorist groups in India remains extortion or taxation.
This is especially relevant for groups in the North-East and the Maoist-effected area – Crime
• The sequence of actions associated with crime used to raise funds for terrorism go through a process similar to extortion to include committing the criminal act, moving the proceeds and finally using it for terrorism
– Cyber-attacks and with Bitcoins terrorist funding has become more discrete – Credit card fraud
Solutions to curb terrorism:
• The Intelligence and Security agencies need to maintain a close watch to identify potential ISIS recruits and take further action, if necessary.
• The government has to focus on developmental issues and reducing economic disparities and enabling inclusive growth
• The government need to concentrate on effective border management through round the clock surveillance & patrolling on the border areas.
• Effective coordination and acting on early intelligence needs to worked on as seen in the instance of Pathankot attacks where terrorists are believed to have crossed the international border through the same sector from where the Gurdaspur attackers had infiltrated into India.
• Lessons from Israel:
– Efforts to strengthen the psychological endurance of the civilian population like Israel.
– Defense against chemical and biological attacks- Israel has developed sophisticated technologies for detecting explosives and arms at a distance, electronic eavesdropping and signals intelligence, and visual intelligence with unmanned aerial vehicles • India needs to ensure high amount of on-ground security in India.
• Increasing efficiency of police force:
– India’s average police-population ratio (per 100, 000 population) is 138. The UN recommends 220 for peacetime.
Suggetions to curb the menace of terrorism :
- If a particular section is involving in such activities try to listen their concerns first , try to solve them with in the frame work of constitution 2. Intellegence system must be stengthen
- Foreign and local bases must be destroyed
- Identify the economic sources , try to stop them
- Involving the local people in information gathering
- Conclude global level agreements for sharing inforamation of terrorist and extradition of terrorists
- Cooperation among various contries in techniques of comabating terorism
- De radicalization of youth must be under taken to curb one type of terrorism
- Create employment opportunities, developing backward areas and along with recognition of their identity , preservation of culture and their traditional rights also must be recognized.
- Misuse of social media : need a careful observation
- State level police should also given a rigorous training in terror related incidents
- Cyber threats also need to be contained
Major sources of terror funding :
- Among the different countries there was a lack of concensus on the definition of terrorist, so with one or other reason some countries supporting financially some groups 2. Illegal trade like drugs, opium, arms trade, human trafficking, illegal trade across the border are some sources.
- Theft ,looting
- In some foreign countries they are exporting the oil to foreign countries by occupying the oil fields. They are imposing certain taxes on local people , trade of artifacts 5. Donations from sympathizers
- India has been hit by terrorism since a long time, like, 1993 Bombay blasts, attack on Parliament in 2011, the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, Pathankot attacks etc. In view of such attacks it becomes imperative for India to check this rising menace, for which the following steps can be taken: Ensure co-ordination among the intelligence and security agencies to check infiltration of terror activity.
- Empowering and engaging with civil society and local communities can help in countering radicalization and to stop the spread of violent extremism.
- Given the important role of educational establishments in promoting the values of non-violence, peaceful coexistence and tolerance, education must feature prominently in counter radicalization programs.
- Several initiatives that promote alliance of civilizations and intercultural dialogue must be promoted to counter terrorism. For instance, the Rashtriya Ekta Diwas celebrated on 31st October promotes unity in India.
- Enhancing security presence along the international boundaries and seal the porous borders.
- Undertaking policies to tackle economic and social inequalities will help in deterring disgruntled youth from being lured towards terrorism.
- Terrorist organizations have successfully taken advantage of the great benefits of the Internet. Hence, countering radicalization on digital media must be given priority. Governments should intervene in this matter through monitoring and counter-propaganda programs Incorporating ‘SAMADHAN’ in security operations in LWE affected areas and at same time focusing on development projects in Red corridor districts.
Sources of funding
- NGO, charities and donations are an important sourcing of funds for terrorism. These funds are mostly claimed through religious appeal, coercion and fears of victimization.
- Counterfeiting of Indian currency not only funds terrorism, but, more importantly, it is used as a tool by neighboring states to destabilize the Indian economy.
- Drug financing are also a major sources of terrorism financing in India.
- Biggest source of internal funding for terrorist groups in India remains extortion. This is especially relevant for groups in the North-East and the Maoist-affected areas.
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