[Solved] The need for cooperation among various service sector has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges bring the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘Collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above, examine India’s Development process. ( UPSC GS-2 Mains 2019)

India is a democratic country. The participation of multiple stakeholders is the key to the effective Developmental processes. The same applies to the service sector of India which has contributed 54.17 per cent of India’s Gross Value Added at current price in 2018-19*. And Net service exports stood at US$ 60.25 billion in April-December 2018.

 Why there is need for Cooperation?

 • In an Integrated economy one service sector does have multiplier effect and link with the other service sector. For example Tourism is linked with the Health as well as Leisure. Therefore the cooperation among the various service sectors is needed for development. Otherwise developmental processes will become cumbersome and time taking.

 Development can be defined as increase in the freedom and choice of individuals. It involves enhancing the capabilities of individuals (capability approach of Amartya Sen). Development process involves contribution of various service sectors like education, healthcare, information technology, financial inclusion, nutrition and sanitation, urban planning etc.

 All these sectors have to work in collaboration to ensure holistic development and overcome limitations of individual actors.

 For instance, if schemes like food security is implemented better but healthcare or nutrition is neglected, then the positives of former will be negated by the latter.

 How Cooperation is achieved through Partnership?

 • Partnership is formed when two or more than two entities come together, voluntary or involuntary, at a common platform to solve a particular problem or to provide a public good or service.

 • The partnership is of many types legal, economic, political, social, environmental, administrative, and ethical. For example CSR bridges the gap between IT sector and Education sector. The profits of CSR can be used for the better education of children in a specific area.

 Why Gap needs to be bridged:

 • The gap develops when an activity is carried out in singular without taking in cognizance of plurality of dimensions affected by that activity.

 • The Gap between various sectors might affect the development and render activities void without significant effect on the lives of the people. This gap is the formal or informal one which affects the outcomes of developmental processes. Thus through the various types partnership bridges the gap among the sectors. This gap bridging is necessary for the Developmental processes in an integrated economy because this leads to:

 – Participatory developmental processes

 – Community participation in the developmental processes – Effective and Efficient Governance

 – Effective delivery of public services

 – To ensure Public interest and national interest – To gain Public trust

 – For credibility and legitimacy of the processes Culture is a way of performing various tasks in an organization, community or society. When partnership takes place, a culture of collaboration and team spirit is fostered. The different sectors arrive at common platform and together by achieving a consensus are able to solve problem or deliver service. Also this togetherness results in the development of team spirit.

 Fortunately, there are various initiatives wherein various service sectors are working together to achieve well defined goals.

 1. Governance:

 • CSCs are the access points for delivery of essential public utility services, social welfare schemes, healthcare, financial, education and agriculture services, apart from host of B2C services to citizens in rural and remote areas of the country. It is a pan-India network catering to regional, geographic, linguistic and cultural diversity of the country, thus enabling the

 • Government’s mandate of a socially, financially and digitally inclusive society.

 • Promoting Space Technology based Tools and Applications in Governance & Development.

 • The North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC), play the catalytic role in holistic development of NER of India by providing Space Science and Technology support on natural resource management, infrastructure planning, healthcare, education, emergency communication, disaster management support, and space and atmospheric science research.

 2. Tourism:

 • Apni Dharohar Apni Pehchan Project: Under it, Private, Public Sector Companies and Corporate individuals were invited to adopt heritage sites and to take up responsibility for making them and promote sustainable tourism through conservation and development under their CSR activities

 Swachh Iconic Places: Under the Swachh Bharat Mission, it has been decided to undertake a special clean-up initiative focused on 100 iconic heritage, spiritual and cultural places in the country.

 3. Medical tourism:

 Health:

 • Ayushman Bharat or the National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM): • Insurance service for health protection.

 • Midday meal: focus on both health and education • Telemedicine

 • Kayakalp: The initiative towards total “swachhta” in public health facilities is aimed towards building confidence of the users in public health facilities and provide quality service.

 4. Education:

 • Massive open online courses: Swayam is platform that facilitates hosting of all the courses, taught in classrooms from

 • Class 9 till post-graduation to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.

 5. Banking:

 • Banking correspondents

 • Digitisation of banking services

 • Initiative by finance ministry for banking awareness in schools 6. Women empowerment through SHG

 7. Media:

 Women empowerment: selfie with my daughter

 8. Awareness through advertisement. Eg: TB, AIDS awareness campaign.

 This proves that partnership among various sectors is crucial to realise development goals.

 India’s development process:

 Post-independence, development process was driven by state through five-year plans. With LPG reforms role of state transformed more into a catalyst rather than direct implementation agent.

 We have achieved a lot in the process.

 • Life expectancy has increased from around 30 years to around 65 years • India has succeeded in pulling nearly 271 million people out of poverty from 2006 to 2016 (multi-dimensional poverty index)

 • At present only around 22% people are in below poverty line category.

 • Through initiatives like health mission, mid-day meal schemes, RTE etc. infant mortality rates, child mortality rates, institutional deliveries, literacy rate has all drastically improved.

 • We have achieved food security to a larger extent, though we lag behind in nutritional security.

 However, development process is not without its limitations.

 • Regional imbalance is still a huge barrier in achieving inclusive development. Amartya Sen had once criticized our neoliberal development model saying half of India might look like Silicon Valley and another like sub Saharan Africa.

 • Rural India suffers from huge problems across various dimensions. Agrarian distress, farmer suicides, rural-urban migration show that half of India has not got its share of the development process.

 • Income inequality has increased to one of its highest ever ratio. Article 39(c) calls for prevention of concentration of resources and wealth in few hands. Unfortunately, State has failed to realize this directive principle.

 • India’s transformation from an agrarian economy to service sector economy has failed to ensure gainful employment for lot of youth. It has resulted in jobless growth.

 • Development model has resulted in negative impact on environment. According to WHO ,14 out of 20 most polluted cities are in our country.

 • A lot of cities are suffering from water distress. For example, recently Chennai had to get its water supply from other towns.

 This shows that lack of partnership between various sectors and governments at various levels has led to success in few areas and limitations in other areas.

 Measures that can be taken to address these limitations of development process.

 • Decentralized planning wherein local actors will plan for themselves to ensure customized development, prevent leakages across various levels.

 • Various sectors should be coordinated by local governments to ensure the success of one sector is not negated by the other.

 • State should focus on sectors like education, health care which has multiplier effect on social dimensions wherein private sector might not be interested Social security schemes like insurance, pension, minimum wages, progressive taxation should be made more efficient to reduce income inequalities.

 Conclusion

 Thus partnership among various service sector leads to “SabkaSath and SabkaVikas”. This model adopts collaborative and participatory approach for the development of the country. This way the country can achieve sustainable growth and inclusive development factoring into the various challenges which are in front of the Indian society and economy, such

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