[Solved] The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.

Independence movements in Africa often were led by individuals who had attended Western schools (either in Africa or abroad)

[Solved] The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.

Independence movements in Africa often were led by individuals who had attended Western schools (either in Africa or abroad).

• These Western educated Africans spoke the language of the colonizers and knew the types of

political activities and organizations which the colonizers understood; therefore, they were in a

better position to communicate with the colonizers in their efforts to gain the independence which

their fellow Africans without European education appreciated, desired and often sacrificed their

lives for.

• Some of them were: Kwame Nkrumah (Gold Coast, now Ghana), Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal),

Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Côte d’Ivoire).

• They with the help of their counterparts in other continents, protested against the colonial order by publicizing the corruption and injustice perpetrated by the colonial master.

• However the independence achieved by these colonies has not been very fruitful because:

a) Since independence, West Africa has suffered from the same problems as much of the African

continent, particularly dictatorships, political corruption and military coups.

b) The region of West Africa has seen a number of civil wars in its recent past including the Nigerian

Civil War (1967–1970), two civil wars in Liberia in 1989 and 1999, a decade of fighting in Sierra

Leone from 1991–2002, the Guinea-Bissau Civil War.

c) The socio economic development in the African countries did not improve much even after

independence and they still remain as the poorest countries in the world.

The anti colonial struggles in West Africa as response to European imperialism assumed both violent and non-violent form of resistance and spanned from late nineteenth century to mid twentieth century. The form of resistance depended upon number of factors – influence of religion, nature of the colony, degree of imperialism etc.

The role of intellectuals in the freedom struggle in various phases stood out as beacon of hope for later movements (apartheid in South Africa in second half of twentieth century). One of the outstanding figures in West Africa colonial struggle was Samouri Toure. He created large Mandinka Empire in West Africa and his struggle is a significant example of pragmatic resistance against French. He manufactured firearms, relocated his kingdom and engaged in diplomacy with both French and British.

Another form of resistance continued alongside violent resistance i.e. , the use of propaganda through press and literature by intellectuals. J.T. Jabavu established the press ‘Native opinion’ (Imvozaba NTsundu) through which Black south Africans expressed their opinions. The ‘Lagos weakly Record’ was founded by John Payne Jackson, an America-Liberian journalist who was influential in Lagos, Nigeria in 19th–20th Century.

Besides press, the African intelligentsia also used societies, clubs and associations as vehicles for arising consciousness and disseminating information. The Gold Coast Aborigines Rights Protection Society (APRS) was one was one such associations formed in 1880s. In 1898 the ARPS successfully sent a petition to London to address issues with land Bill, and later for repealing the Town council ordinance. Another important organization founded in twentieth century was the ‘National Congress of British west Africa’ located in the gold cost which consisted of mostly African intellectual.

In the post World War II period, decolonization was started which was the struggle for attaining freedom from colonial rule by most countries in Asia and Africa. It was marked by a transfer of power. The administrative responsibilities and duties were assumed by the national political elites and new sovereign nations were born.

The process

Political liberty from colonial rule was termed by the nationalist as the instrument to alleviate the economical and social degradation and all injustice. As India got M.K. Gandhi as its leader to conduct a mass movement during India’s freedom struggle, the West African countries also had similar leaders from the western-educated Africans.

Leaders

  • Kwame Nkrumah asked the nationalists to find the political kingdom first and eventually, it will add all other necessary things. In 1957, he led the Gold Coast to freedom and reconstructed the country Ghana.
  • Nigerian statesman and political leader Nnamdi Azikiwe was the leader of Nigeria during the anti-colonial struggle. He led Nigeria to its independence in 1960.
  • Leopold Sedar Senghor served as the first president of Senegal. He led Senegal to independence.
  • One of the prominent African critics of the French colonial empire in Africa, Kojo Tovalou Houenou struggled for the equality of race and founded the Negritude movement.
  • Amilcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was one of Africa’s foremost anti-colonial leaders. He was the founder and secretary-general of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde and led Guinea-Bissau to freedom from Portugal.
  • Felix Houphouet Boigny was the first President of the Ivory Coast. He led Ivory Coast to independence.

West African nations, however, had faced peace and stability after independence. The incident of civil wars, dictatorships, and military revolts severely affected the whole country.

[Solved] The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.

Independence movements in Africa often were led by individuals who had attended Western schools (either in Africa or abroad).

• These Western educated Africans spoke the language of the colonizers and knew the types of

political activities and organizations which the colonizers understood; therefore, they were in a

better position to communicate with the colonizers in their efforts to gain the independence which

their fellow Africans without European education appreciated, desired and often sacrificed their

lives for.

• Some of them were: Kwame Nkrumah (Gold Coast, now Ghana), Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal),

Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Côte d’Ivoire).

• They with the help of their counterparts in other continents, protested against the colonial order by publicizing the corruption and injustice perpetrated by the colonial master.

• However the independence achieved by these colonies has not been very fruitful because:

a) Since independence, West Africa has suffered from the same problems as much of the African

continent, particularly dictatorships, political corruption and military coups.

b) The region of West Africa has seen a number of civil wars in its recent past including the Nigerian

Civil War (1967–1970), two civil wars in Liberia in 1989 and 1999, a decade of fighting in Sierra

Leone from 1991–2002, the Guinea-Bissau Civil War.

c) The socio economic development in the African countries did not improve much even after

independence and they still remain as the poorest countries in the world.

The anti colonial struggles in West Africa as response to European imperialism assumed both violent and non-violent form of resistance and spanned from late nineteenth century to mid twentieth century. The form of resistance depended upon number of factors – influence of religion, nature of the colony, degree of imperialism etc.

The role of intellectuals in the freedom struggle in various phases stood out as beacon of hope for later movements (apartheid in South Africa in second half of twentieth century). One of the outstanding figures in West Africa colonial struggle was Samouri Toure. He created large Mandinka Empire in West Africa and his struggle is a significant example of pragmatic resistance against French. He manufactured firearms, relocated his kingdom and engaged in diplomacy with both French and British.

Another form of resistance continued alongside violent resistance i.e. , the use of propaganda through press and literature by intellectuals. J.T. Jabavu established the press ‘Native opinion’ (Imvozaba NTsundu) through which Black south Africans expressed their opinions. The ‘Lagos weakly Record’ was founded by John Payne Jackson, an America-Liberian journalist who was influential in Lagos, Nigeria in 19th–20th Century.

Besides press, the African intelligentsia also used societies, clubs and associations as vehicles for arising consciousness and disseminating information. The Gold Coast Aborigines Rights Protection Society (APRS) was one was one such associations formed in 1880s. In 1898 the ARPS successfully sent a petition to London to address issues with land Bill, and later for repealing the Town council ordinance. Another important organization founded in twentieth century was the ‘National Congress of British west Africa’ located in the gold cost which consisted of mostly African intellectual.

In the post World War II period, decolonization was started which was the struggle for attaining freedom from colonial rule by most countries in Asia and Africa. It was marked by a transfer of power. The administrative responsibilities and duties were assumed by the national political elites and new sovereign nations were born.

The process

Political liberty from colonial rule was termed by the nationalist as the instrument to alleviate the economical and social degradation and all injustice. As India got M.K. Gandhi as its leader to conduct a mass movement during India’s freedom struggle, the West African countries also had similar leaders from the western-educated Africans.

Leaders

  • Kwame Nkrumah asked the nationalists to find the political kingdom first and eventually, it will add all other necessary things. In 1957, he led the Gold Coast to freedom and reconstructed the country Ghana.
  • Nigerian statesman and political leader Nnamdi Azikiwe was the leader of Nigeria during the anti-colonial struggle. He led Nigeria to its independence in 1960.
  • Leopold Sedar Senghor served as the first president of Senegal. He led Senegal to independence.
  • One of the prominent African critics of the French colonial empire in Africa, Kojo Tovalou Houenou struggled for the equality of race and founded the Negritude movement.
  • Amilcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was one of Africa’s foremost anti-colonial leaders. He was the founder and secretary-general of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde and led Guinea-Bissau to freedom from Portugal./anti/
  • Felix Houphouet Boigny was the first President of the Ivory Coast. He led Ivory Coast to independence.

West African nations, however, had faced peace and stability after independence. The incident of civil wars, dictatorships, and military revolts severely affected the whole country.

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