[Solved]Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment (UPSC 2020)

 Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect thought, social structure, culture, political institutions of that time or the spirit of the age. Persian was the favorite language of rulers the, Delhi Sultanate and Mughals promoted it. That was the time when Persian poetry, literature and chronicles enjoyed patronage.

  • Non-local individuals brought Arabic, Persian, and Turkish in India. Since Persian was the most loved language of rulers at that point, various makers of abstract work utilized this language to intrigue them. The Delhi Sultanate incredibly advanced it.
  • That was when verse delighted in the support. Persuasive individuals used to like it. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan Dehlvi made amazing verse in Persian. There were explicit bits of composing committed to Alauddin Khalji.
  • Qiran-us-Sa’dain, Miftah-ul-Futuh, Tughluq Nama, Khazain-ul-Futuh gave a record of the tactical accomplishment of Jalaluddin Khalji, Ghiyasuddin Tughluq’s ascent to power, and Alauddin Khalji’s success of the South separately.
  • Minhas-us-Siraj, Ziauddin Barani, and Ibn Batuta, the renowned history specialists, wrote in Persian to illuminate about rulers and fundamental political scenes.
  • Persian stayed the authority language of the Mughal court as well, as it was on account of the Delhi Sultanate. Babur, with his advantage in writing, got his diaries converted into Persian by Abdur Rahim Khan-e-Khanan. A Persian diwan was created by Humayun, though Dara Shikoh composed a true-to-life variant of the Sufi holy person Mian Mir.

Persian literary  sources and medieval Spirit


  • The chronicles called Tawarikh by courtiers of Kings: ZiauddinBarani (13th-14th Centuries) – Tarikh-i-Firoze Shahi – preserves the history of the Delhi
  • Minhas-us-Siraj, Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta, the famoushistorians, wrote in Persian to inform about rulers and mainpolitical episodes.
  • Social, political-economical experiments of Allauddin Khilji,Muhhamad bin Tuglaq or Balban are known to us through such Chronicles only


 Travellers such Ibn Battuta and Al Beruni wrote Rihlah and Kitab ul Hind respectively as broad observation books on Indian culture and people. These travellers reflected the spirit of exploration of the age.


  • Biographies in the era of Mughals such as Ain-i-Akbari, Tuzuk e babari, Shah Jahan-nama, Alamgirnama
  • Ain-i-Akbari gives an idea about Akbar religious policy, his revenue administration and his household capture spirit of his reign and also Mughal dynastical chronology

Sufism and Poetry

 Amir Khusrau and Mohammad Jayasi incorporated Bhakti and Sufi tendencies of their age in their literary works

Thus Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit  in every possible dimension , and we can say court language Persian through chronicles, biographies, administrative accounts and poetry reflected the spirit of the age.

It was the language of Mughal court narratives

  • Mughal narratives like the Akbar Nama were written in Persian. Additionally, the Mughal heads appointed interpretations of Sanskrit messages, for instance, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana into Persian.
  • Abu’l-Fazl, the creator of the Akbar Nama, was a unique arguer and freed mastermind who continually went against the perspectives of the traditionalist ulama. His characteristics intrigued Akbar to think of him as a consultant and a representative of his approaches.
  • Abdul Hamid Lahori, the writer of the Badshah Nama, charged by Shah Jahan to compose a background marked by his standard displayed on the Akbar Nama.
  • Persian being the language of the organization all through that age, Europe knew India through the Jesuit records which mirrored the subtleties of state authorities and general states of life in Mughal times given in Persian accounts.

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