[Solved ] Many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement during the Gandhian phase. Elaborate ( UPSC GS-1 Mains 2019)

The period from 1920 to 1947 has been described as the Gandhian Era in Indian politics. During this period, Gandhiji had the final say on behalf of the Indian National Congress in negotiating with the British Government for constitutional reforms, and for chalking out a program for the national movement. MahatmaGandhi led the nationalist movement against British rule and it also gave space and voice to many other voices which further strengthened the movement.

 Voices that strengthened and enriched nationalist movement are as follow:

 • The emergence of socialism in congress during 1920s and 1930s imparted a new orientation to anti British struggle because the socialist vision of national movement was quite different from Gandhiji and other nationalists.

 • Anti British struggle got radicalised greatly because socialists wanted that the idea of non-violence should be followed by congress in a pragmatic manner for the mistakes of one or few individuals, entire movement must not be made to suffer.

 • The emergence of socialism gradually transferred national movement into an all out war against British rule. The socialists believed in the idea of the sustained struggle. Quit India movement was based on this philosophy

 Socialist Voice

 •The emergence of socialism in Congress during 1920s and 1930s imparted a new orientation to anti-British struggle because the socialist vision of national movement was quite different from that of Gandhiji and other nationalists.

 •Anti-British struggle got radicalised greatly because socialists wanted that the idea of non-violence should be followed by congress in a pragmatic manner for the mistakes of one or few individuals, entire movement must not be made to suffer.

 •The emergence of socialism gradually transformed national movement into an all out war against British rule. The socialists believed in the idea of sustained struggle.

 Quit India Movement was based on this philosophy.

 Revolutionary Extremists Voice

 •Indian revolutionaries provided an alternative to all those nationalists was participated in anti-British struggle and were not satisfied with the moderate approach of congress.

 The supreme self-sacrifice performed by Indian revolutionaries inspired lakhs of Indians to join antiBritish struggle, as a result of which, the mass base of national movement continued to increase with the passage of time.

 •Indian revolutionaries popularized the cause of Indian struggle against British rule all over the world. This helped in strengthening public opinion against British rule.

Swarajists Voice

 •Swarajists provided an alternative to Indian nationalists at a time when a sense of disillusionment had developed among Indians due to sudden withdrawal of noncooperation movement.

 •Through their efforts swarajists exposed the hollowness of reforms introduced by the Act of 1919. They proved that the real power was still in British hands.

 •Appointment of Simon commission in November 1927 changed the atmosphere prevailing in India. The swarajists also abandoned their separate line of action and joined hands with mainstream congress to participate in anti-Simon commission agitation.

 Revolutionary Extremists voice:

 • Indian revolutionaries provided an alternative to all those nationalists participate in anti-British struggle were not satisfied with the method approach of congress

 • The supreme self-sacrifice performed by Indian revolutionaries inspired lacs of Indians to join anti British struggle as a result of this the mass base of national movement continued to increase with the passage of time.

 • Indian revolutionaries popularised the cause of Indian struggle against British rule all over the world. This helped in strengthening public opinion against British rule Swarajists voice:

 • Swarajists provided an alternative to Indian nationalists at a time when a sense of disillusionment had developed among Indians due to sudden withdrawal of non-cooperation movement Through their efforts swarajists exposed the hollowness of reforms introduced by act of 1919.

 They proved that the real power was still in British hands.

 • The swarajists lost their steam by 1926-27 because of the death of C. R. Das and wrong impression was created by their activities.

 • Appointment of Simon commission in November 1927 changed the atmosphere prevailing in India. The swarajists also abandoned their separate line of action and joined hands with mainstream congress to participate in anti Simon commission agitation.

 Indian Working Class as well as Leftist voice:

• During 1920-22, there occurred a resurgence of working class in Indian national movement and got involved in mainstream of nationalist politics to significant extent. Most important development was formation of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC).

 • The workers participated during 1930 in the Civil Disobedience Movement but after 1931 there was a dip in the working class movement because of a split in 1931 in which the corporatist trend led by N.M. Joshi broke away from the AITUC to set up the All India Trade Union Federation.

 Women’s voice strengthening and enriching nationalist movement:

 • Sarojini Naidu also fondly known as the Nightingale of India was a prolific writer and poet. She was president of the Indian National Congress and was an outstanding leader campaigning and leading from the front in the Civil Disobedience Movement and Salt Satyagraha.

 • Annie Besant was elected the president of the Indian National Congress and launched the Home Rule Movement.

 • Usha Mehta who as a child participated in the ‘Simon Go Back’ movement, did little know that her true calling was her nationalist spirit and broadcasting for the Congress Radio during the Quit India Movement.

 • Madam Cama or BhikajiCama exiled in Europe was a social worker and a strong nationalist. She unfurled the flag of Indian Independence in Stuttgart Germanyalong with a powerful speech advocating the right to freedom.

 • Other prominent voices during Gandhian phase were Kamala Nehru, Vijay Lakshmi Pandit, Kalpana Dutta, Kamaladevi, etc.

 Indian Working Class as well as Leftist voice

 •During 1920-22, there occurred a resurgence of working class in Indian national movement which got involved in the mainstream of nationalist politics to a significant extent. Most important development was formation of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC).

 •The workers participated in large numbers during 1930 in the Civil Disobedience Movement but after 1931 there was a dip in the working class movement because of a split in 1931, in which the corporatist trend led by N.M. Joshi broke away from the AITUC to set up the All India Trade Union Federation.

 Women’s voice strengthening and enriching  nationalist movement:

 •Women participated in large numbers in the civil disobedience and Quit India Movement. They organised boycotts against liquor and foreign goods and were instrumental in Dandi March.

 •Sarojini Naidu, also fondly known as the Nightingale of India, was a prolific writer and poet. She was the president of the Indian National Congress and was an outstanding leader campaigning and leading from the front in the Civil Disobedience Movement and Salt Satyagraha.

 •Annie Besant was elected the president of the Indian National Congress and launched the Home Rule Movement.

 •Madam Cama or Bhikaji Cama exiled in Europe was a social worker and a strong nationalist. She unfurled the flag of Indian Independence in Stuttgart Germany along with a powerful speech advocating the right to freedom.

Conclusion: There was a greater truth– that of a glorious struggle, hard-fought and hard-won, in which many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement and made countless sacrifices, dreaming of the day India would be free.

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