[Solved] Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalisation? Justify your answer(UPSC GS-1 Mains 2020)

India is a diverse country and India’s significance lies in its interesting society. Globalization is the way toward growing and speeding up the development of thoughts, individuals, capital, and trade of products (labor and products) over immense distances. India essentially affects Indian social variety in both positive and negative manners.

  • The truth worried about the existentialism of current India is a plural society of incredibly enormous social variety in scale and degree.
  • It, thusly, wants to advance a sort of identity that is noticeable neither by universalism made by cycle of making things uniform or comparable totally, nor by selective connection to one’s own advantage, gathering, or local area; however globalization doesn’t result in either, additionally it can’t, since social attachment makes the Indian culture exceptional in supporting its way of life.
  • In India as well as internationally, allies of hostile to globalization assert that the world is being homogenized, since the customer products are getting homogenous around the world, making individuals carry on with a consumeristic lifestyle and following an arrangement of qualities that attention on the material world and on actual solace.
  • Supporters additionally guarantee that this causes individuals to lose their public or social or ethnic or social way of life as they have quit following these “descriptive words” having distinction for them. Maybe, this is more about a worth arrangement of a specific individual. The individual having the nature of being insightful won’t ever endure this sort of personality emergency.
  • At the point when we talk globalization, it is just about the spread of items, innovation, data, and occupations across public lines and societies.
  • It portrays an association of countries all throughout the planet cultivated through deregulation in financial terms having no immediate negative ramifications for society except if it turns into a hatchery for globalization.
  • All things considered, globalization spreads social insight which improves social metacognition (some of the time called social care) needed to get, feel, and regard different societies. Truth be told, it offers quintessence to “solidarity in variety” and helps structure a general public wherein the individuals from minority bunches keep up their autonomous social customs.

Impact on core of cultural diversity and pluralism

  • Linguistic diversity: The influence of transnational corporations has resulted in a central common language mainly English, which dominates regional dialects, and minority languages. But it has a positive dimension, where it had lead to Indians excelling in the services sector of the economy. Also, technology has helped preserve some of the dying artefacts, document local languages and also exposed Indians to various global arts/movies etc. For example, Flipkart and amazon is selling tribal artefacts, Channapatna wooden toys etc.
  • Caste: Though globalization has led to decreased emphasis on localised castes. Globalisation has led to the rise of lower castes by making them aware of their rights. People eat together, increased instances of inter-caste marriages are seen in the urban areas. But the socio-economic disparities in societies continues to cause conflicts, which are dominated by caste hegemony.
  • Religious diversity: In a globalised world where increased prosperity and materialistic pursuits have decreased the religion based conflicts and superstition. It also had led to questioning the age old exploitative traditions like Devadasi and Triple-talaq. Also though India is multi-religious but was dominated by Hindu’s with globalization it has led to be polarised by few religions. Also, exposed India to religious fundamentalism.
  • Racial diversity: Globalisation to an extent has changed the racial demography to an extent with decreasing numbers of Mongoloid race. Migration within and outside India has to an extent changed the demography of Indian races.
  • Women empowerment: Globalisation has attacked the discriminatory tendencies and patriarchal mindset in India. It has helped in getting rid of practices derogatory to women and has helped in the rise of women and exposure of women related issues. E.g. globalisation has helped women to realise their rights and led to raise their voice against crime like dowry.

How this has diluted the diversity and pluralism in India?

  • Unmonitored access to Western culture has led to increasing misrepresentation, stereotyping and the risk of loss of cultural and intellectual property rights.
  • Increased consumerism and availability of media has led to erosion of local cultural traits.
  • Under the influence of Western ideas of individualism there has been more homogenization of values and beliefs. Eg: Loss of local artefacts, promotion of western dressing, shift from local culinary habits etc.
  • English as a medium of mass communication has undermined the local languages. The development of literature is also impacted by this. Many tribal languages have been wiped out due to the use of a common tongue.
  • The globalisation generalised the taste and preferences of people relating to food, dance forms and Values. This undermines the peculiar features of various ethnicities like cuisines.
  • In the globalised and mechanised economy no art has remained local. Countries like China is flooding Indian market with the products which were local to India like toys making. This has impacted diversity in Art and handicraft as now we find the same kind of product all over India.
  • Increasing urbanization as a consequence of globalisation has resulted in migration of people from rural areas, resulting in the disintegration of the joint family system. A new trend of nuclear families with one or maximum two children has emerged in India.

India is a place where there is diversity and pluralism. The exceptionally different nature of our way of life is the joining strength of India. Because of globalization, ladies in India have gotten more mindful of their privileges and are presently getting out of their homes to seek after tutoring as well as advanced education and occupations. Globalization to a degree went about as a bringing together power yet observed admittance would help India protect its multi-lingual, multi-strict, and multi-position society. Hence, it has both positive and negative impacts on diversity and pluralism generally speaking.

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