[Solved] Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss. (UPSC 2020)

Philosophy and tradition play a significant role in the development of arts and architecture in almost all civilizations and culture. Indian history is a particular illustration of this from Indus civilization to the Freedom movement.

  • The Urban and trade based tradition of Harappan civilization affected its town chess board based planning.
  • The Varna system emerged in the Vedic Age having a great influence on Indian philosophy and tradition was also evident in how cities and villages spatially incorporated varna with dominant sections at the centre and others at the periphery.
  • Dhamma of Ashoka: He propagated his Dhamma of religious tolerance, it led to the innovation of stone pillars, highly polished craft spread all over the country.
  • Buddhist religious reforms and philosophy made Chaitra and Vihara a norm for monastic life. Thus we found rock-cut cave architecture in Ajanta, Ellora, Bagh caves
  • Buddhist motifs, the life cycle of Buddha and his philosophy became a crucial aspect of Gandgahra, Mathura and Amravati sculpture.
  • In South India during the Chola period Temple was traditionally at the centre of the village for societal communication, economic actvity craft. It was literally also at the nucleus of the village and urban settlements.
  • During the Bhakti movement faith was made a personal affairthis led to innovation in songs and music by Bhakti saints, Sufis and mystics
  • The tradition of Vaishnavism affected Mathura sculpture, Bhakti movement poetry, music and Rajasthani and Pahari school of painting
  • Many dance form like Manipuri, Odissi find their philosophical moorings in Vaishnavism.
  • During the freedom struggle art responded to the call of Swadeshi as in paintings of Nand Lal Bose or Abhnindra Nath Tagore.
  • Thus we can say Indian Philosophy and tradition shaped the monuments and art in India.

The Indian way of thinking and tradition assumed a huge part in considering and molding the landmarks and their craft in India. The landmark could be any structure, design, or site that is of recorded significance or interest. Here are some conversation focuses in this reference:

  • For political unification, Ashoka standardized a typical Dhamma, a typical language, and one content (Brahmi). He shared his musings and theory by etching them on stone columns and rock surfaces which are remarkable instances of Mauryan design and applying science.
  • The goals and philosophical customs are well apparent in Gupta’s workmanship. The specialties and corners of strict spots were finished with sculptures of divine beings and goddesses.
  • The cut portrayals of divine beings addressed their characteristics of having control over nature or human fortunes. The Dashavatara sanctuary at Deogarh and the cavern sanctuaries in Udaigiri slopes show the Gupta workmanship.
  • When the Pallavas and the Cholas ruled, there was a practice where the sanctuary used to be the focal spot in a town for cultural correspondence.
  •  They widely fostered the practice of building sanctuaries, for instance, the ‘ratha’ at Mahabalipuram style of sanctuaries, underlying sanctuaries, for example, the Kailashanath and Vaikunthperumal sanctuaries by the Pallavas.
  • The Varna framework arose in the Vedic Age impacting Indian way of thinking and custom was additionally obvious in how things got imagined and added to the primary development of urban communities.
  • Staging the conventional music and dance exhibitions were a practice. The Kerala sanctuaries are portrayed by the kūṭṭambalam, the lobby where such exhibitions were given.

Additionally, the practice of Vastu sastra related with the heavenly powers, along with the ways of thinking behind its ideas, is the evidential bases for characterizing the fine art with which large numbers of these landmarks were fabricated.

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