ICMR’s ‘Clinicopathological Profile of Cancers in India’ Report UPSC

 The ‘Clinicopathological Profile of Cancers in India: A Report of the Hospital-Based Cancer Registries, 2021′ was just published by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

What are the most important findings?

  • Gender differences: Males had a greater proportion of total cancer cases (52.4%) than females (47.4 percent )
  • Female Malignancies: Gynecological cancers, including breast cancer, accounted for more than half of all cancers in women.
  • Cancers in children (0-14 years) account for 7.9% of all cancers.
  • The 45 to 64 year old age group had the largest proportion of cancers recorded from all locations, with the exception of prostate cancer in males, which was greater in those over 65 years.
  • Tobacco usage is linked to 48.7% of male cancers and 16.5 percent of female cancers.
  • Chemotherapy was the most prevalent treatment technique for numerous malignancies, independent of the clinical degree of disease at the time of presentation.

Did  you know?

  • The ICMR in New Delhi is India’s premier body for biomedical research planning, coordination, and promotion.
  • It is financed by the Indian government’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The Union Health Minister is the Chairman of the ICMR’s Governing Body.
  • A Report of the Hospital-Based Cancer Registries, 2021, on the Clinicopathological Profile of Cancers in India
  • It brings together data from 96 hospital-based cancer registries that were part of the National Cancer Registry Program from 2012 to 2019.
  • The information is based on all confirmed cancers diagnosed and treated at these centers across the country.
  • For the indicated period, only registries with complete and finalized data sets were included.
  • Clinicians, researchers, health professionals, politicians, and others who want to receive and use cancer statistics can benefit from this publication.
  • The goal is to give an understanding of the forms of treatment given to cancer patients at various stages of the disease, with a focus on which organ location is the source of the disease (primary site of cancer).

What exactly is cancer?

  • It is a vast range of diseases that can begin in practically any organ or tissue of the body and spread to other organs when abnormal cells proliferate uncontrollably and invade adjacent regions of the body or spread to other organs.
  • Oncology is the branch of medicine dedicated to diagnosing, treating, and researching cancer, and an oncologist is a physician who works in this field.


  • Even if cancers spread to other places of the body, they are termed by the area where they start and the type of cell they are made of.
  • There are also a few clinical terminology for different forms of cancer in general:
  • Carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the skin or the tissues that border the insides of other organs.
  • Sarcoma is a type of cancer that affects the connective tissues of the body, such as the bones, muscles, cartilage, and blood vessels.
  • Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow, which produces blood cells.
  • Lymphoma and myeloma are lymphoma and myeloma, respectively, malignancies of the immune system.
  • Cancers of the gastrointestinal system and breast cancer were among the other frequent cancers.


  • Surgery:
  • Removes as much cancer as possible surgically.
  • Chemotherapy:
  • To kill rapidly dividing cancer cells, it employs cell-toxic medicines.
  • It is the most common treatment modality for many cancers, regardless of the clinical extent of disease at presentation, including cancers of the liver, gallbladder, stomach, lung, and childhood cancers, and most cancer patients were started on cancer-directed treatment within 8 to 30 days of diagnosis, regardless of the organ site and clinical extent.
  • Radiation Therapy (RT) is a type of treatment that uses
  • It kills cancer cells by delivering intense, focused beams of radiation either inside (brachytherapy) or outside (external beam radiation) your body.
  • Transplantation of stem cells (bone marrow):
  • It replaces damaged stem cells in sick bone marrow.
  • Undifferentiated cells, known as stem cells, can perform a number of activities. These transplants allow doctors to treat cancer patients with stronger dosages of chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapy (Biological Therapy) is a type of treatment that uses the body’s own immune system to
  • It employs antibodies to assist the body’s immune system in recognizing cancer and combating it.
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy:
  • It inhibits the growth of cancer cells by removing or blocking hormones that drive certain malignancies.
  • Drug Therapy with a Specific Purpose:
  • It use medications to disrupt molecules that aid cancer cell growth and survival.
  • Treatment with multiple modalities:
  • Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are used in a variety of ways.
  • It is used to treat breast and head and neck malignancies.
  • India’s Cancer Burden
  • The National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020 states:
  • Tobacco-related malignancies are expected to account for 3.7 lakh people (27.1 percent) of the total cancer burden in 2020.
  • By 2025, the number of cancer cases in India is expected to rise to 15.6 lakhs, a 12 percent increase above current estimates.
  • One out of every ten Indians will develop cancer at some point in their lives, and one out of every fifteen will succumb to the disease.
  • Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men in India, and it is mostly caused by tobacco use.
  • Initiatives by the government
  • As part of the Sustainable Development Goals, India has committed to a one-third decrease in cancer-related mortality by 2030, and it has achieved significant progress./Clinicopathological/
  • India has progressed in several areas, such as personal hygiene, which are important cancer risk factors.
  • Ayushman Bharat, Swasthya Bharat, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Poshan Abhiyan, and Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana, as well as efforts like the FSSAI’s new labeling and display requirements and medicine pricing control, might inspire inter-sectoral and multi-sectoral activity./Clinicopathological/
  • Other measures, such as the National Health Policy, the National Tobacco Control Program, and the National Program for Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke Prevention and Control, are also paving the way for progress.
  • The National Programme for the Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented at the district level under the National Health Mission (NHM).
  • India establishes ‘dbGENVOC,’ the world’s first Database of Genomic Variants of Oral Cancer.
  • dbGENVOC is a free online database that allows you to search for GENomic Variants of Oral Cancer.

Conclusion about Clinicopathological

  • Risk reduction, early detection, and programmatic and policy remedies must all be prioritized.
  • Cancer drugs must be affordable so that therapy can be delivered as soon as possible in the early stages of the disease, when the cancer is curable.
  • The availability and affordability of cancer medications will boost treatment outcomes while lowering treatment costs./Clinicopathological/

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