[Solved] How was India benefitted from the contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively? ( UPSC GS-3 mains 2019)

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, a civil engineer and statesman. He made contributions to several technical projects in his career in Hyderabad, Mysore, Maharashtra and Orissa. The Great KRS Dam was his excellent work instrumental in converting the barren lands into fertile grounds for farming.

 Swaminathan is an advocate of moving India to sustainable development, especially using environmentally sustainable agriculture, sustainable food security and the preservation of biodiversity, which he calls an “evergreen revolution.”

 Following are the contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya in the fields of water engineering:

• He is best remembered for the instrumental role he played in the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara Lake and dam in 1924. This dam not only became the main source of water for irrigation for the nearby areas, but was also the main source of drinking water for several cities.

 • He had designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates were employed to raise flood supply level of storage in reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained without causing any damage to the dam.

 • Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam and Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/Mysore, Karnataka

 • He was one of the Chief designing engineers for bringing up a system for flood protection in Hyderabad. He played a key role in developing a system to protect Vishakapatnam port from sea erosion.

 • Visvesvaraya gave his valuable technical advice for the location of Mokama Bridge over Ganga in Bihar.

Role of Sir M.Visvesvaraya

 Water Utilization techniques

 Sir M. Visvesvaraya developed modern techniques that ensured that water was optimally utilised by the population. He developed water supply system for Sindh and also designed drinking water storage facility for the Hyderabad state.

 Irrigation systems

 Southern part of Karnataka was extensively irrigated by constructing KRS dam and developing canal system. The irrigation enabled the region to convert into a suagr bowl of the region.

 Hydropower harvesting

 Sir M.Visvesvaraya was the reason for pioneering hydropower projects in Karnataka state even before rest of the country. He designed power stations in Sivasamudram and Gersoppa in Karnataka, which were then used to provide electricity to industries.

 Following are the contributions of Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of agricultural science:

 Dr. MankombuSambasivan Swaminathan (M.S. Swaminathan) is a renowned Indian geneticist and administrator, who made a stellar contribution in the success of India’s Green Revolution.

 He called was Norman Borlaug of India.

 The program and the program went a long way in making India self-sufficient in wheat and rice production. He was instrumental in designing and patenting a system of automatic weir floodgates in 1903.

Sir M V was the architect of the Great Krishna Raja Sagara Dam in Mysuru.

He designed a flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad by Mussi River.

He is the one who designed a plan for road construction between Tirumala & Tirupati

Sir M V played a key role in developing a system to protect the Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion.

 • He introduced the Mexican semi dwarf wheat plants as well as modern farming methods in India.

 • His research on potato genetics and was successful in standardizing procedures for transferring genes from a wide range of wild species of Solanum to the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum.

 • He also suggested that Phenological changes in rice have resulted in the possibility of three harvests per year, in wheat the extended grain filling period was a result of phenological change.

 • His contributions to the better understanding of genetic traits that define the growth and yield are impressive. Growth and yield- defining factors are pivotal for the attainment of potential yields.

 • Farmer field schools promoted by Swaminathan in the early seventies have demonstrated that empowered farmers with good understanding of the ecological systems and with sufficient access to the means of control have resulted in the precision agriculture and best ecological means that characterize the evergreen revolution.

 • He established the National Bureau of Plant, Animal, and Fish Genetic Resources of India.

 • He did develop new and improved varieties of seeds, better farming methods, better soil and water management.

 • He chaired National Commission for farmers laying out many recommendations to improve farming and the condition of farmers in India

 • He is also a resourceful writer. He has written several research papers and books on Agricultural Science and Biodiversity like ‘Building a National Food Security System, 1981’, ‘Sustainable Agriculture: Towards an Evergreen Revolution, 1996’, etc.

 Conclusion:

 • Sir M. Visvesvaraya as an Engineer and an administrator, the kind of work which he has done will stand as an inspiration to many more generations to come.

 • Swaminathan’s contribution in the field of agricultural science is pro-poor, pro-environment, prowomen and children is a beacon for the development of agro-ecosystems that contribute to food and nutrition security, and empower farmers and their organizations.

Contribution of Dr M. S. Swaminathan:

 Plant genetics: His dedicated work on plant genetics and agricultural research produced a high-tech invention in wheat crops with staggering results that paved the way for a green revolution in India in the mid-sixties.

Food fortification

 Dr Swaminathan was responsible for developing varities of crops that were incorporated with certain nutrients that supplemented health benefits for the consuming population. This reduced malnutrition significantly.

 Hybrid variety of seeds

 He was a great force behind developing varieties of Wheat and Rice, which were capable of sustaining variable temperatures , diseases and also gave high yield for the farmers.

 Food security

 India was highly dependent on foreign imports of food grains to be supplied for the population. The green revolution, headed by Dr Swaminathan, was successfull in making India a food grain sufficient economy.

 He created a wheat plant by cross-breeding seeds from Mexico with a local species that yielded plentiful grains compared to traditional varieties.

 Food fortification: Dr Swaminathan was responsible for developing varieties of crops that were incorporated with certain nutrients that supplemented health benefits for the consuming population. This reduced malnutrition significantly.

 Hybrid variety of seeds: He was a great force behind developing varieties of Wheat and Rice, which were capable of sustaining variable temperatures, diseases and also gave high yield for the farmers.

 Food security: India was highly dependent on foreign imports of food grains to be supplied for the population. The green revolution, headed by Dr Swaminathan, was successful in making India a food grain sufficient economy.

Conclusion:

Sir M. Visvesvaraya as an Engineer and an administrator, the kind of work which he has done will stand as an inspiration to many more generations to come. Swaminathan’s contribution in the field of agricultural science is pro-poor, pro-environment, pro women and children is a beacon for the development of agro-ecosystems that contribute to food and nutrition security, and empower farmers and their organizations.

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