[Solved] Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian Independence since the twenties of the last century. ( UPSC GS-1 Mains 2017)
There have been many developments since the twenties of the last century regarding the vision of independence which impacted India even post-independence.
- The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s policy of nonviolence and civil resistance, and several other campaigns.
- While, nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Also, Congress and Muslim league rift further widened and by late 1930’s the link was unbridgeable between them and Pakistan would be a reality.
- Prior to 1920, the aim of then leaders is liberation from the Britishers. But after that many values we are added to our vision. By that time communal elements are raising, so we decided to establish a secular India.
- By looking at USSR we adopted the socialistic model of economy. Subash Chandra Bose believed that we need wage two wars; one is against foreigners other is against the local lords, jamindars who are exploiting the common man.
- B.R. Ambedkar enumerated the ideas of Justice, Equality, Fraternity (taken from French revolution) in writing constitution because to eliminate the inhumane practices against some backward sections .then we decided to build a just, equitable India. Mahatma Gandhi introduced the concepts like nonviolence, tolerance and ahimsa. These principles also became the part of vision of India.
- During the Britishers time India depending on British goods, later we decided to build self-reliant India. Grama swarajyam was the dream of Mahatma Gandhi. By experiencing the past WW-I, WW-II India decided to be nonaligned country.
- After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, owing to the influence of Nehru in congress and also due to Bhagat Singh’s demand of Purna Swaraj (Complete Self-Rule).
- Under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru at the historic Lahore session in 1929, the Indian National Congress adopted the idea of complete self-rule and end of British rule.
- The non-cooperation movement made the Indian people strive even more towards self-rule. The
- movement allowed the Indian community to revive their inner confidence and strength against the British Government.
- Fundamental rights, land issues, labour issues were widely discussed so larger societal problems were acknowledged which provided a framework on which India could act post-independence as
- The peasant movements in 1920’s and 1930’s like Kisan Sabha movement, Eka movement, got
- integrated at national stage and also within congress framework, All India Kisan Sabha brought peasants together and made congress actively involved in peasant issues which helped while resolving land reforms post-independence./objectives/
- The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as the Swaraj Party, Hindu Mahasabha, Communist Party of India and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
- Lower castes under the leadership of Ambedkar and also because of Gandhi’s efforts, were recognized as worst sufferers, who were affected by both British and upper-caste Indians.
- Many women participated in the movement, including Kasturba Gandhi (Gandhi’s wife), Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Muthulaxmi Reddy, Aruna Asaf Ali, and many others
- The history of the Indian National Movement can be separated in different phases starting from the political upliftment in 1885 when Congress was established. Later the partition of Bengal in 1905, the Swadeshi movement in 1906. Gandhiji’s entry into politics in 1919 and the partition in 1947.
- In this time phase, India witnessed several reforms through the introduction of Morley Minto reform, Montague Chelmsford reform, the Government of India act, etc./objectives/
- Gandhiji tried to uplift the scheduled castes and tribes. B.R. Ambedkar established an institution named Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha in 1924 to nullify the problems of the untouchables and address their grievances before the government. E. V. Ramasamy started the Self-Respect Movement in 1925.
- During the time of the khilafat movement, Hindu Muslim unity was noticed and women also participated. Md. Ali Jinnah was the representative of the Muslim in the later phase. In 1928, the Nehru report was published that intended to provide voting rights and equal fundamental rights to both men and women. The women were given voting rights.
- Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Gadar Party, Swaraj Party, Krishak Praja Party, and the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji had become the voice of the introduction of socialistic welfare ideology & rural development.
- Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Satyagraha, Ahmedabad mill strike, Mappila rebellion, Eka movement succeeded to fulfill the demand of the peasants and workers. The intention of the peasants was not only the eradication of the British but also the cessation of the activity of middlemen and landlords.
- The first phase of the freedom movement witnessed agitation due to local demands of the peasants and the workers regarding payment, land taxes, and the nuisances of the landlords but the later part of the freedom movement witnessed mass agitation with the long term demands and reforms. It also influenced global politics. And the leadership like Mahatma Gandhi, Surendranath Banerjee, Sarojini Naidu made the agitation more rampant against the British rule with the demand for complete independence of India./objectives/
- In spite of their common thought process, there were glaring differences in their approach. They are as follows: Subhash Chandra Bose was a radical socialist meaning that he wanted to change the existing socio-economic situation whereas Gandhi was a conservative./objectives/
- The young members, of INC including Bose demanded complete self-rule without any compromise while the senior members were okay with dominion status for India within British rule.
- Bose had a strong revolutionary urge to achieve freedom while Gandhi believed in passive resistance.
- Bose proposed the idea of complete Independence from the British rule. He wanted Swaraj based on all out struggle. Gandhi on the other hand believed in the concept of Struggle-Truce-Struggle. Gandhi was in favour of trusteeship theory and aspired village to be self-sustained economy.
- Bose was a strong supporter of Fascism which was obvious in his strong belief that India needed a political system which was a mix of fascism and communism. Gandhi on the other hand was an anti fascist who did not propagate any such extreme political system.
- Bose was open to the idea of taking foreign assistance to achieve freedom as seen in the formation of Indian national Association while Gandhi was completely against any such idea.
Despite their ideological defferences both Gandhi and Bose spoke highly of each other. There were occasions when Bose praised Gandhi for his success in involvement of women in freedom struggle. Even Gandhi while differing from Bose’s extreme methods had utmost admiration for his unique effort for India’s freedom, mainly his struggle for freedom from outside India. Cue must be taken from these two great leaders’ tolerance and respect towards each other even after serious difference of opinion./objectives/
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