[Solved] Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India? ( UPSC GS-3 Mains 2017)

[Solved] Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India? ( UPSC GS-3 Mains 2017)

India’s agricultural sector is characterized by traditional, subsistence and livelihood, rain fed farming, food grain oriented, lacking diversification and commercialization. India’s majority of economic issues are primarily of poverty and unemployment and both the problems and their resolution lie in the agricultural sector.

 • In the nascent independent India, production could be increased by bringing in more and more land under cultivation without addressing productivity. However, today all available arable land is already under cultivation which means production can be increased only through increased productivity.

 • With increasing population, increased incomes especially of the poor in the future would increase the demand for agricultural products manifold. Agricultural sector is considered as very vulnerable, because it is one sector where demand will only keep on increasing and supply will always be volatile with so many structural factors.

 Revolutions after Independence

 Realizing the importance of food grains way back in the sixties, the government ushered in Green Revolution pioneered by DR. M.S. Swaminathan, to improve the productivity of wheat and other cereals, through researched improved seeds known as HYV seeds.

 • After attaining the self-sufficiency in wheat and rice, other attemptswith other revolutions were centered around products and their relative importance such as

 • White Revolution (milk and Milk products)

 • Yellow Revolution (oil seeds)

 • Blue Revolution (marine products)

 • Golden Revolution (Honey)

 • Silver Revolution (Eggs)

 • Red Revolution (Meat and tomato)

 Tackling Poverty alleviation and Food security

 • Food security should be envisioned around a “basic nutrition basket of goods” aimed at getting rid of malnutrition and ensuring “nutrition security” of its population. Both in terms of ‘Hunger’ and

 ‘Malnutrition’, India ranks poorly.

 • Initially, there is a need to have a mechanism to identify the beneficiaries or the poor people. BPL cards are of conclusive proof to them being beneficiaries, but not a conclusive proof of being below poverty line.

 • The entire TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System) operation of procurement, storage, movement, and its ultimate distribution to the poor should be computerized with a technology leveraged tracking mechanism throughout the country. ADHAAR network can help government for creating a data base  of the entire population.

 • Food Security has to be seen in broader context covering hunger, malnutrition, absolute poverty, addressing inefficiencies in the delivery channel, stream lining identification of beneficiaries, all aimed at improving living conditions of the people and getting rid of absolute poverty from the country.

  • India is primarily an agricultural economy and majority of people are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. After independence, development of agriculture has been assured by various revolutions supported by government.
  • Green Revolution – This revolution led to tremendous rise in production of food grains, especially wheat, by use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and pesticide.
  • White Revolution – Operation Flood (1970), an initiative of National Dairy Development Board has led to revolution in milk production in India. The world’s largest dairy development programme transformed India from a milk deficient nation to world’s largest milk producer.
  • Blue Revolution – This revolution focussed on management of fisheries sector and has led to phenomenal increase in both fish production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources of the inland and marine fisheries.
  • Other revolutions which are no less significant includes yellow revolution(oil seed production), golden fibre revolution (jute), golden revolution (horticulture), silver fibre revolution (Cotton) and red revolution (meat production).

 Significance of these revolutions

  • These innovations in agriculture have lifted millions of people out of poverty by generating rural income opportunities for farmers, farm labourers, and also reduced prices for consumers. India has become self sufficient in food grain production with the help of green revolution.
  • The exponential rise in milk production has led to nutritional security among the masses. Per capita availability of milk has reached all time high of 337gms/day.
  • These steps have provided avenues for income diversification for farmers.
  • Various types of revolutions in Agriculture after Independence in India:
  • Green Revolution: This revolution led to tremendous rise in production of food grains, especially wheat, by use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilisers and pesticide. In the agriculture sector in the decade of 1960 India started green revolution, and high yielding variety seeds were used in wheat, rice, maize. This experiment gave success and extended to most parts of the country.
  • White Revolution: Operation Flood (1970), an initiative of National Dairy Development Board has led to revolution in milk production in India. The world’s largest dairy development programme transformed India from a milk deficient nation to world’s largest milk producer. This has introduced in the new breeding technologies, high quality fodder, vaccination, veterinary facilities improved.
  • Blue Revolution: This revolution focussed on management of fisheries sector and has led to phenomenal increase in both fish production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources of the inland and marine fisheries.
  • Other revolutions: Other revolutions are also significant includes yellow revolution (oil seed production), golden fibre revolution (jute), golden revolution (horticulture), silver fibre revolution (Cotton) and red revolution (meat production).
  • Significance of these revolutions in poverty alleviation and food security:
  • These innovations in agriculture have lifted millions of people out of poverty by generating rural income opportunities for farmers, farm labourers, and also reduced prices for consumers.
  • India has become self sufficient in food grain production with the help of green revolution. Green revolution increased the amount food grains enormously, with this India came out of PL-480 agreements, through which India imports food grains from USA.
  • White revolution in dairy sector came in 1970s, in this using co-operatives. In model farmers collectively increased the production of milk and India became the net exporter of milk. The exponential rise in milk production has led to nutritional security among the masses. Per capita availability of milk has reached all time high. With this supplementary income to the farmers increased and it improved the food and nutritional security of the people.
  • Blue revolution increased the sea food production. With this fishermen community get benefited and also provide food and nutritional security.
  • Also these revolutions provided income and employment to women leading to women empowerment helping millions to come out of poverty.
  • To further carry on the momentum of these programmes and assure food security in long run in face of ever increasing population, there is an urgent need for an ‘evergreen revolution’ that should focus on all round development of the agriculture sector. Recently govt started ever green revolution which focuses all aspects of agriculture pertaining to various products, it is also called as rainbow revolution. It also extend the results of green revolution eastern part of the country, it is a technology driven scheme.

 Further reading..

  • In the agriculture sector in the decade of 1960 India started green revolution, according to this high yielding variety seeds are used in wheat, rice, maize. This experiment gave success and extended to most parts of the country.
  • It increased the amount food grains enormously, with this India came out of PL-480 agreements, through which India imports food grains from USA. But this initially benefited only big farmers who can invest huge amount and to the areas have assured irrigation facilities only.
  • Next revolution is white revolution in dairy sector came in 1970s, in this using co-operative In model farmers collectively increased the production of milk and India became the net exporter of milk. This has introduced in the new breeding technologies, high quality fodder, vaccination, veterinary facilities improved.
  • With this supplementary income to the farmers increased and it improved the food and nutritional security of the people. Govt started Seri culture for production of silk, epi culture for production of honey etc. Recently govt started ever green revolution which focuses all aspects of agriculture pertaining to various products, it is also called as rainbow revolution.

 It also extend the results of green revolution eastern part of the country, it is a technology driven scheme. Recently govt is talking about blue revolution which increase the sea food production. With this fishermen community get benefited and also provide food and nutritional security. In poverty alleviation these scheme help to some extent but not fully because technologies that were brought by these revolutions are not accessable and affordable by our poor marginal farmers, moreover those are not viable in small land holdings, no marketing facilities and MSP. It improved food security, but still hunger is the major problem not because production problem but problem lies in distribution.

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