[Solved ] Explain how the foundations of the modern world were laid by the American and French revolutions. ( UPSC GS-1 Mains 2019)

The credit for making democracy popular in the world goes not only to the great American war of interdependence, but also to the French Revolution, which was equally a struggle of weapons as well as of idea. The ideas of freedom, equality and fraternity are the eternal contribution of the French Revolution in the modern constitutional principles adopted around the world.

 How the American Revolution laid the foundation of the modern world:

 •American Revolution gave rise to ideas, such as constitunalism, rule of law, individualism, sovereignty,and separation of power which gained popularity in the modern world history.

 • American Revolution gives the idea such as constitunalism, rule of law indivuduailism, soverginity, and separation of power which gains popularity in the modern world history.

 • The revolution led to the establishment of a republic based on the first written constitution in the world.

 • It inspired the people in Europe as well as others part of the world to fight against their despotic regimes to compel the government to adopt the constitution.

 • Success of American nationalism inspired the emergence of the nationalist movement in European countries such as Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Central and South America to rebel and gain their independence.

 • It also inspired the nationalist movement in colonies like India during 19th and 20th century • It also triggered a series of trans-Atlantic revolutions.Ex-French, Irish etc • The idea of capitalism was also popularised by the success of American Revolution.

 • It triggered the process of decolonisation which continued for more than 200 years.

 • The lessons learnt by British government from its defeat in the war of American independence were implied in the newly emerging colonial empire in India in future.

 • It intensified hostility between Britain and France this renewed hostility was responsible for continental wars and battles

 • This was a marked contrast to the other states were Monarchies were still in power. This inspired people across the world to struggle for democratic and republican forms of government.

 • It established a federal state with powers divided between the federal government and states.

 This provided a nice template for power-sharing in diverse countries that needed complex polities.

 • Besides, there was a separation of powers between various organs of the state.

 • Certain inalienable rights were given to the people – this limited the government against the authority of people and reduced government interference in their lives.

 • Democracy was established, but it was far from perfect. Sections like Negroes and women were denied voting rights. But the journey to democracy had begun.

 • It led to many uprisings in Europe, with the French revolution being the biggest. Many generals who participated in the war were instrumental in the French revolution.

 • Thinkers like Thomas Paine also participated in the revolution. This led to a spread of modern ideas in Europe.

 The revolution led to the establishment of a republic based on the first written constitution in the world.

 •It inspired the people in Europe as well as other parts of the world to fight against their despotic regimes to compel the government to adopt the constitution.

 •Success of American nationalism inspired the emergence of the nationalist movement in European countries, such as Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Central and South America to rebel and gain their independence.

 •It also inspired the nationalist movement in colonies like India during 19th and 20th century.

 •It triggered the process of decolonisation which continued for more than 200 years.

 •The idea of capitalism was also popularised by the success of American Revolution.

 •It intensified hostility between Britain and France, this renewed hostility was responsible for continental wars and battles.

 •This inspired people across the world to struggle for democratic and republican forms of government.

 •It established a federal state with powers divided between the federal government and states. This

 provided a nice template for power-sharing in diverse countries that needed complex polities.

 •Besides, there was a separation of powers between various organs of the state.

 •Certain inalienable rights were given to the people – this limited the government against the authority of people and reduced government interference in their lives.

 •Democracy was established, but it was far from perfect sections like Negroes and women were denied voting rights. But the journey to democracy had begun.

 •Thinkers like Thomas Paine also participated in the revolution. This led to a spread of modern ideas in Europe.

 How the French revolution laid the foundation of the modern world:

 •The French Revolution had been a world-shaking event.

 For years to come its direct influence was felt in many parts of the world. It inspired revolutionary movements in almost every country of Europe (German and Italian unification) and in South and Central America.

 •For a long time the French Revolution became the classic example of a revolution which people of many nations tried to emulate.

 •It gave the idea of liberty, equality and fraternity to the modern world. It brought about a political awakening in Europe. People began to rise in revolt to demand their rights.

 •It also popularized the concept of democracy. Absolute monarchy was replaced by constitutional monarchy in many countries.

 The French Revolution had been a world-shaking event. For years to come its direct influence was felt in many parts of the world. It inspired revolutionary movements in almost every country of Europe (Germany and Italian unification) and in South and Central America.

 • For a long time the French Revolution became the classic example of a revolution which people of many nations tried to emulate.

 • It gave the idea of liberty, equality and fraternity to the modern world. It brought about a political awaking in Europe. People began to rise in revolt to demand their rights.

 • It also popularised the concept of democracy. Absolute monarchy was replaced by constitutional monarchy in many countries.

 • It separated religion from politics and stood for secularism which condemned religious fanaticism.

 • It generated a new power which gave birth to a new civilization. The declaration of human rights emphasise that sovereignty lies with the people and law is an expression of their will.

 • It kicked a number of movements where people demanded not only political freedom but also right to property and freedom of expression.

 • The revolution aroused the spirit of political, social and economic equality like women claimed equal rights with men.

 Even though the old ruling dynasty of France had been restored to power in 1815, and the autocratic governments of Europe found themselves safe for the time being, the rulers found it increasingly difficult to rule the people.

 • Some of the changes that took place in many parts of Europe and the Americas in the early 19th century were the immediate, direct consequences of the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars.

 • The wars in which France was engaged with other European powers had resulted in the French occupation of vast areas of Europe for some time.

 • The French soldiers, wherever they went, carried with them ideas of liberty and equality shaking the old feudal order. They destroyed serfdom in areas which came under their occupation and modernized the systems of administration.

 • Under Napoleon, the French had become conquerors instead of liberators. The countries which organized popular resistance against the French occupation carried out reforms in their social and political system. The leading powers of Europe did not succeed in restoring the old order either in France or in the countries that the Revolution had reached.

 • The political and social systems of the 18th century had received a heavy blow. They were soon to die in most of Europe under the impact of the revolutionary movements that sprang up everywhere in Europe.

 It separated religion from politics and stood for secularism which condemned religious fanaticism.

 •It a number of movements where people demanded

 not only political freedom but also right to property and freedom of expression.

 •The revolution aroused the spirit of political, social and economic equality for instance, women claimed equal rights with men.

 •Some of the changes that took place in many parts of Europe and the Americas in the early 19

 th century were

 the immediate, direct consequences of the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars.

 •The French soldiers, wherever they went, carried with them ideas of liberty and equality shaking the old feudal order. They destroyed serfdom in areas which came under their occupation and modernized the systems of administration.

 •The political and social systems of the 18th century had received a heavy blow. They were soon to die in most of Europe under the impact of the revolutionary movements that sprang up everywhere in Europe.

 Conclusion: On the whole, it may be said that the American and French Revolution were exemplary events in the world history. American Revolution laid the foundation, while French Revolution constructed building of modern world (with Liberty, Equality, Fraternity). French Revolution gave inspiration to many movements like India’s Struggle for Freedom 1857-1947 to rise against tyranny and misrule.A new era began in the new world and paved the way for the new epoch for the old world.

For latest Articles [Paper wise GS 1-4] and Solved papers join us @ https://t.me/UPSCexamNotes1

For solved

UPSC ESSAYS click here

GS Paper 1 click here


Gs Paper 2 click here

Gs paper 3 click here

GS paper 4 click here

Sociology click here

Entertainment click here

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: