Dudhwa Tiger Reserve -UPSC NOTES

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve -UPSC

Spread across the lush forests of Uttar Pradesh, the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is India and Asia’s first and foremost National Park. The park is spread over an area of approximately 1200 square km. The plot offers a breath-taking display of ecological habitats, animals and birds in their natural habitat that are mostly endangered species. It is time to see for yourself why this park has been named as one of the prettiest places in the world!

About Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

  • It is located on the Indo-Nepal border in the district Lakhimpur-Kheri in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Dudhwa National Park, together with Kishanpur and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuaries, represent the best natural forests and grasslands left in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The three Protected Areas, being the last viable home of the Royal Bengal Tiger in the state, have been jointly constituted into Dudhwa Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger.
    • Kishanpur, the oldest of the three PAs, was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1972, followed by Katerniaghat in 1975 and finally Dudhwa National Park (680 sq km) in 1977.
  • The vegetation is of the North Indian Moist Deciduous type, containing Sal forests (Shorea robusta), as well the most extensive tracts of moist grasslands that remain in this region.
  • The Sharda River flows by the Kishanpur WL Sanctuary, the Geruwa River flows through the Katerniaghat WL Sanctuary and the Suheli and Mohana streams flow in the Dudhwa National Park.
    • The above mentioned rivers are tributaries of Ghagra River.
  • Tiger, Rhinoceros ,Elephant, Swamp deer, Sambar, Cheetal, Hog deer, Kakar, Wild pig, Blue bull, Rhesus monkey, Langur, Sloth bear, Porcupine, Otter, Monitor lizard, Turtles, Python, Mugger, Gharial etc. are found in DTR.

More about  Dudhwa national park

  • The Dudhwa National Park is a national park in the Terai belt of marshy grasslands of northern Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is part of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve covering the areas of Kheri and Lakhimpur districts.
  • Dudhwa became a tiger reserve in 1879. The area was established in 1958 as a wildlife sanctuary for swamp deer.
  • In 1987, the park was declared a tiger reserve and brought under the purview of the ‘Project Tiger’.
  • Together with the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary it forms the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve.
  • It is located on the Indo-Nepal border in the Lakhimpur Kheri District, and has buffer of reserved forest areas on the northern and southern sides.
  • It represents one of the few remaining examples of a highly diverse and productive Terai ecosystem, supporting many endangered species, obligate species of tall wet grasslands and species of restricted distribution.
  • It is well known sanctuary of the swamp deer and is home to tigers, leopards, varieties of deer, antelopes, elephants, jackal, hyena etc
  • It is also a bird watchers’ heaven.
  • A large number of rhinos are also found here.
  • The park has some of the best forests of ‘Sal’ tree in the world, amongst other flora.
Project Tiger Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched by the Government of India. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the distribution of tigers in the country. The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. The monitoring system M-STrIPES was developed to assist patrol and protection of tiger habitats. The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.  

Set in one of the largest natural sanctuaries in Asia, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve encompasses a large terrain of prime wildlife habitats. It is the largest forest reserve in West Benagl, and one of the country’s last remaining strongholds for the royal Bengal tiger. Within its territory is widely varied scenery typical of tropical India. For many years, Dudhwa has been a favorite with visitors from India and abroad for its stunning beauty.

The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is the final refuge of tigers, Asian Elephants, hard ground barasingha deer and many more endangered species. The reserve takes its name from the Dudhwa River that flows along its southern boundary. In its remote hills and valleys there are over 325 plant species and 59 species of mammals. The territory of this Park also includes adjoining forest areas in Nepal.

After the enactment of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 and based on the recommendation
of the task force committee, constituted in 1972 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of
India, the “Project Tiger” was launched in India on April 1,1973 with the following
To ensure the maintenance of a viable population of tigers in India for scientific,
economic, asthetic, cultural and ecological values.
To preserve for all times, the areas of such biological importance as a national heritage
for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.
From the conservation and management point of view, information on status of forest cover
in Tiger Reserve and its periodic monitoring is essential. The nature, extent and spatial
distribution of the changes in the forest cover would greatly help in planning appropriate
management interventions for the future. Space-borne Remote Sensing technology has
proved to be very useful tool in monitoring periodic changes in the forest cover of an area.
Tiger Reserve is the protected area that is notified as such under section 38 V of the
Wildlife (Protection ) Act 1972 (vide Amendment of 2006).The State Govt shall, on the
recommendation of the Tiger Conservation Authority notify an area under Tiger Reserve.
The expression “Tiger Reserve” includes-Core and Buffer.
Core is a critical tiger habitat area of National Park and sanctuaries, where it has been
established, on the basis of scientific and objective criteria. These areas are required to
be kept as inviolate for the purpose of tiger conservation without affecting the rights of
the Scheduled Tribes or such other forest dwellers and notified as such by the State
Government in consultation with an Expert Committee constituted for the purpose;
Buffer area or peripheral area consisting of the area peripheral to critical tiger habitat or
core area, identified and established in accordance with the provisions contained in
above, where a lesser degree of habitat protection is required to ensure the integrity of
the critical tiger habitat with adequate dispersal of tiger species, and which aim at
promoting co-existence between wildlife and human activity with due recognition of
the livelihood, developmental, social and cultural rights of the local people, wherein the
limits of such areas are determined on the basis of scientific and objective criteria in
consultation with the concerned Gram Sabha and Expert Committee constituted for the

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