[Solved] Analyse internal security threats and transborder crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC). Also discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard ( UPSC GS-3 Mains 2020)

India administers borders with Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. Here Civilizations settled on either side of geographical barriers like river or mountain ranges and limited exchange takes place from the very beginning. Other boundaries are political ones and they bear the historical burden as is the case of  India with neighbors like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal. Internal security threats and transborder crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC) is discussed below.

Indo-Pak border challenges The Indo-Pakistan border

  • was created in 1947 based on the Radcliffe Line, covering a length of 3,323 km along the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan.
  • This is one of the most active borders and  face key challenges  like infiltration and smuggling .This border has also witnessed several clashes with Pakistan, with the major ones being in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999.
  • Although several attempts have been made since independence to settle the border issues through negotiations and discussions, like the Indus Waters Treaty.
  • However, critical issues like the Pakistan occupied Kashmir, Sir Creek dispute, cross-border , cease fire violation have remained  key challenges plaguing this part of the Indian border and our armed forces
  • The harsh and varied climatic conditions along this 3,323-km of border compound the challenges faced by our armed forces in securing these areas.
  • An increase in ceasefire violations and infiltration attempts observed during the pre-winter season, when vigilance becomes extremely tough due to snowfall along the mountainous terrain.
  • Other factors like the political instability and crisis in Pakistan also lead to an upsurge in cross-border infiltration  and cross border tension along the border areas.

Indo-China border challenges

The India-China border, known as the McMahon Line, is spread over a distance of 3,488 km. Originally the Indo-Tibetan border (before the occupation of Tibet by China in 1950), this border remains disputed along its entire length and is one of the key points of friction between the two countries over the past years.

  • Although confidence building measures such as appointment of special envoys and formation of joint working groups have been initiated time and again, incidents along the border have been reported in the past.
  • All this makes it imperative for the Indian armed forces to maintain constant vigil along the LoAC (IndoChina border).

Indo-Bangladesh border challenges

  • India shares 4,096 km with Bangladesh. This is the fifth  longest international border in the world. The  length covers different geographical terrains such as open area, plain, a river and jungles.
  • The states of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura , Mizoram adjoining  Bangladesh on three sides.
  • Since the partition in 1947, the primary challenge on this side of the border has been the influx of illegal migrants .
  • Over the years due  to the porosity of the border, a large number of illegal immigrants have continued to enter India, especially the adjoining states, leading to serious burdens on state resources, infrastructure and contributing to vast changes in the demographics of the state.
  • The large settlements of illegal immigrants have also been the cause of social unrest and underlying tensions in the northeastern states.
  • The local population is overwhelmed by the presence of outsiders and the resulting impact on their way of life.
  • This social unrest is a cause of concern for the Government of India, as it poses a serious threat to the internal security of the country.
  • Illegal immigration, including both refugees and economic migrants, has been a persistent burning issue for the state and central governments in India.
  • border is the smuggling of arms, ammunition and drugs, which has increased the number of anti-national elements illegally entering through this porous border.

Indo-Nepal border challenges

  • The India-Nepal border is an open border that covers a length of 1,751 km. Being an open border, it has provided a platform for strong bilateral relations.
  • It has also been the cause of illegal activities such as smuggling of drugs, stolen vehicles, and arms and ammunition into the country.
  • Lately, anti-social elements and terrorist organisations are also using this open border for a least resistance passage into India, thus posing a serious security threat to the states along the border and the internal security of the country as a whole.
  • The open border with Nepal has been exploited by terror groups.
  • Thirty-one battalions of SSB have been deployed to check all such activities at the India-Nepal open border. Moreover, there have been discussions at various levels to set up platforms for dealing with issues of mutual concern.

Indo-Myanmar border challenges

  • India shares a porous border with Myanmar that spans across Arunachal Pradesh (520 km), Nagaland (215 km, Manipur(398Km) , Mizoram (510Km).
  • Fencing  is very thinly done and has been a concern for the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), as it has been witness to  drug trafficking  There is a free movement of distance of 16 km along the border.
  • Though the border between India and Myanmar is properly demarcated, its porous nature of border is a great threat to border security.
  • More than 30,000 people live along the Indo-Myanmar border within a radius of 10 km; they can cross the border at any time without any visa restrictions.
  • The open border and cross-ethnic ties among the tribal community help insurgents escape from the hands of the border security forces.
  • The Government of India has allocated a fund of around
  • 30.96 crore INR to fence the area between pillar number 79 and pillar number 81, which covers a length of around 10 km. There were huge protests from the local tribal community and the work has been halted after construction of 4.02 km of fencing. Approval from the
  • Ministry of External Affairs is awaited to resume the work.

                Indo-Bhutan border challenges

  • Like the Indo-Nepal border, the Indo-Bhutan border is an open border and is properly demarcated. The demarcation conflict lies along the tri-junction where China comes into the picture.
  • The India-Bhutan border is 699 km long and proper demarcation was completed in the year 2006. Smuggling is one of the major concerns along this border.
  • Steps have been taken by governments on both sides of the border to ensure bilateral cooperation. Additionally, the Indian government has also approved a budget of 1,259 crore INR for the construction of 313-km long border roads along the Indo-Bhutan border.
  • The Government of India and Government of Bhutan have agreed for bilateral cooperation on the issue of border security.
  • Insurgent camps established in the southern districts of Bhutan were successfully eliminated by the Royal Bhutan Army forces between 2003 and 2004. This military operation is widely known as ‘Operation All Clear’

 Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


There are seven Central Police Forces under the Union Government, namely

  • Assam Rifles (AR),
  • Border Security Force (BSF),
  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF),
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF),
  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP),
  • Sashashtra Seema Bal (SSB) and
  • National Security Guard (NSG)

Assam Rifles (AR)

  • Known as ‘Friends of the Hill People’, Assam Rifles, raised initially as Cachar Levy in 1835, is the oldest Police Force in the country with headquarters at Shillong.
  • The Force has a dual role of maintaining internal security in the North Eastern region and guarding the Indo- Myanmar Border.
  • The Assam Rifles contribution towards assimilation of the people of the North-East into the national mainstream is truly monumental.
  • They perform many roles including the provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of counter insurgency and border security operations, provision of aid to the civil power in times of emergency, and the provision of communications, medical assistance and education in remote areas.

Rapid Action Force (RAF)

  • The Rapid Action Force (RAF) is a specialised wing of the CRPF.
  • It was established in 1991 with headquarters in New Delhi, to deal with riots, riot like situations, crowd control, rescue and relief operations, and related unrest.
  • The personnel in RAF are trained and equipped to be an effective Strike Force in communal riots or similar situations.
  • These Battalions are located at 10 communally sensitive locations across the country to facilitate quick response in case of such incidents.

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

  • Raised in the year 1969, CISF is presently providing security cover to important installations like space and atomic energy establishments, sea ports, airports, coal mines, steel plants, thermal and hydel power plants, oil and petrochemicals installations, heavy industries, defence establishments, security presses, museums and historical monuments.
  • The specialized task of airport security was assigned to CISF in the wake of hijacking of Indian Airlines plane to Kandhar.
  • The charter of CISF has been expanded to provide security cover to VIPs as well as to provide technical consultancy services relating to security and fire protection to industries in public and private sectors.
  • After the Mumbai terrorist attack on November 2008, the mandate of the force has been broadened to provide direct security cover to private sector also by amending the CISF Act.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force was raised in the wake of India China conflict in 1962.
  • ITBP is a mountain trained Force. Forces are called “Himveer”.
  • It is deployed from the north-western extremity of the Indo-China Border upto the tri-junction of India, China & Nepal covering mountainous terrains.
  • Presently, battalions of ITBP are deployed on border guard duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Diphu La in Arunachal Pradesh, on the India-China border.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

  • Special Service Bureau (SSB) was set up in the early 1963 in the wake of India China conflict of 1962 to build people’s morale and inculcate spirit of resistance in the border population against threats of subversion, infiltration and sabotage from across the border.
  • However, the Force has now been rechristened Sashastra Seema Bal and its charter of duty has been amended. It has been given the border guarding responsibilities along the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan Borders.

Role and Mandate of SSB:

  • As a border guarding force and lead intelligence agency (LIA) for Indo-Nepal border and Indo-Bhutan border.
  • To promote sense of security among the people living in the border area.
  • To prevent trans-border crimes and unauthorized entries into or exit from the territory of India.
  • To prevent smuggling and other illegal activities.

National Security Guard (NSG)

  • National Security Guard was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect States against internal disturbances”
  • It has been modelled on the pattern of SAS of the UK and GSG-9 of Germany.
  • It is a task oriented Force and has two complementary elements in the form of the Special Action Group (SAG) comprising Army personnel and the Special Rangers Group (SRG) comprising personnels drawn from the Central Police/State Police Forces.


The Force is not designed to undertake the functions of the State Police Forces or other Para Military Forces of the Union of India.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF):

  • The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a police force constituted “for the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster” under The Disaster Management Act, 2005.
  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the “apex Body for Disaster Management” in India. The Chairman of the NDMA is the Prime Minister.
  • NDRF in addition to being able to respond to natural disasters, has Four battalions capable of responding to radiological, nuclear, biological and chemical disasters.

Home Guards

  • Home Guards constitute a voluntary force, first raised in India in December 1946, to assist the police in controlling civil disturbances and communal riots.
  • Subsequently, the concept of a voluntary citizens’ force was adopted by several States.
  • In the wake of Chinese aggression in 1962, the Centre advised the States/Union territories to merge their existing voluntary organisations into a single uniform voluntary force called Home Guards.
  • The role of Home Guards is to serve as an auxiliary to the police in the maintenance of internal security, help the community in emergencies such as, air-raids, fires, cyclones, earthquakes, epidemics, etc; assist the administration in the maintenance of essential services, promotion of communal harmony and protection of the weaker sections of society; and participate in socio-economic & welfare activities for the community and perform Civil Defence duties.

The National Foundation for Communal Harmony

  • The National Foundation for Communal Harmony (NFCH) was set up in 1992 as an autonomous body registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, under the administrative control of MHA.
  • The Foundation is providing assistance for the physical and psychological rehabilitation of the child victims of communal, caste, ethnic or terrorist violence, with special reference to their care, education and training besides promoting communal harmony, fraternity and national integration.
  • The Foundation also undertakes and encourages activities which promote belief in the principles of non-violence in resolving disputes between different religious and other groups in society.
  • Foundation also associates itself under the project ‘SAMANVAYA’ with important inter-community festivals like, “phool-walon-ki-sair” in Delhi and Nauchandi festival in Meerut, with a view to promoting better understanding, communal harmony and national integration.
  • The Foundation provides assistance to non-government organizations under the project “Co-operation” to promote the objective of the Foundation.


National Investigative Agencies (NIA)

  • NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks as need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised.
  • National Investigation Agency (NIA) acts as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency.
  • The agency is empowered to deal with terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states.
  • Various Special Courts have been notified by the Central Government of India for trial of the cases registered at various police stations of NIA under the NIA Act 2008.
  • The NIA Special Courts are empowered with all powers of the court of sessions under Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 for trial of any offense.
  • Supreme Court of India has also been empowered to transfer the cases from one special court to any other special court within or outside the state if the same is in the interest of justice in light of the prevailing circumstances in any particular state.

Bureau of Police Research & Development (BPR&D)

  • The Bureau of Police Research & Development was set up in 1970 to identify needs and problems of police in the country, undertake appropriate research project and studies and to suggest modalities to overcome the same.
  • It was also mandated to keep abreast of latest developments in the fields of science and
  • technology, both in India and abroad, with a view to promoting the use of appropriate technology in police work as a force multiplier.
  • Over the years, this organization was also entrusted the responsibility of monitoring the training needs and quality in various State and Central Government police institutions, assisting States in modernization of police forces and looking after the work relating to correctional administration and its modernisation.

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

Set up in 1986, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) was assigned the responsibility of crime mapping and analysis, preparing strategy for crime control and modernization of the State police forces with the mission to empower Indian Police with information technology and criminal intelligence.

Role and Mandate:

  • To prepare an enabling IT environment – policy framework, guidelines, architecture, best practices for Police Forces throughout the country
  • To obtain, compile, analyze and publish the National Crime Statistics
  • To obtain, process and disseminate fingerprint records of criminals including foreign criminals to establish their identity
  • To interact with Foreign Police Forces to share IT practices and crime information.

Central Finger Print Bureau (CFPB)

  • The Central Finger Print Bureau came into existence in the year 1955 to trace Inter-State/
  • International criminals and is doing a pioneering work in automation of fingerprints at national level by using Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS).

Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)

Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) was set up in 1986 under the administrative control of Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance to function as the nodal agency for taking necessary measures under the provisions of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985 for the purpose of preventing and combating abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and illicit traffic therein.

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI):

  • DRI is the major intelligence agency which enforces prohibition of smuggling of drugs, gold, diamonds, electronics, foreign currency, counterfeit Indian currency, etc.
  • The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence functions under the Central Board of Excise and Customs in the Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue.
  • To refer cases registered under the Customs Act to the Income Tax Department for action under the Income Tax Act

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):

  • At an early stage of World War-II, the Government of India realised that vast increase in expenditure for war efforts had provided opportunities to unscrupulous and anti-social persons, both officials and non-officials, for indulging in bribery and corruption at the cost of public and the Government.
  • It was felt that Police and other Law Enforcement Agencies under the State Governments were
  • not in a position to cope with the situation. An executive order was, therefore, passed by the Government of India in 1941, setting up the Special Police Establishment (SPE).
  • Subsequently, Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 was brought into existence.

Mandate of CBI:

  • Cases in which public servants under the control of the Central Government are involved
  • Cases in which the interests of the Central Government or of any public sector project or undertaking, or any statutory corporation or body set up and financed by the Government of India are involved.
  • Cases relating to breaches of Central Laws with the enforcement of which the Government of India is particularly concerned, e.g.
  • Other cases of a serious nature, when committed by organized gangs or professional criminals, or cases having ramifications in several States, important cases of kidnapping of children by professional inter-state gangs, etc.
  • These cases are taken up only at the request of or with the concurrence of the State Governments/Union Territories Administrations concerned.

Intelligence Bureau (IB):

  • The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is India’s internal intelligence agency.
  • It was recast as the Central Intelligence Bureau in 1947 under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The IB was trained by the Soviet KGB from the 1950s onward until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • IB is used to garner intelligence from within India and also execute counterintelligence and counterterrorism Tasks.

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW):

  • The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) is the primary foreign intelligence agency of India. It was established in 1968 following the intelligence failures of the Sino-Indian and Indo-Pakistani wars, which persuaded the Government of India to create a specialised, independent agency dedicated to foreign intelligence gathering.
  • Previously, both domestic and foreign intelligence had been the purview of the Intelligence Bureau.
  • The primary function of R&AW is gathering foreign intelligence and counterterrorism. In addition, it is responsible for obtaining and analysing information about foreign governments, corporations and persons to advise Indian policymakers. It is also involved in the security of India’s nuclear programme.

The present R&AW objectives include, and are not limited to:

  • Monitoring the political, military, economic and scientific developments in countries which have a direct bearing on India’s national security and the formulation of its foreign policy.
  • Moulding international public opinion and influence foreign governments with the help of the strong and vibrant Indian diaspora.
  • Covert Operations to safeguard India’s National interests.
  • Anti-Terror Operations and neutralising terror elements posing a threat to India


The National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is the integrated intelligence grid connecting databases of core security agencies of the Government of India to collect comprehensive patterns of intelligence that can be readily accessed by intelligence agencies.

It was first proposed in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai in 2008.

NATGRID is an intelligence sharing network that collates data from the standalone databases of the various agencies and ministries of the Indian government.

It is a counter terrorism measure that collects and collates a host of information from government databases including tax and bank account details, credit card transactions, visa and immigration records and itineraries of rail and air travel.

This combined data will be made available to 11 central agencies, which are: Research and Analysis Wing, the Intelligence Bureau, Central Bureau of Investigation, Financial intelligence unit, Central Board of Direct Taxes, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Enforcement Directorate, Narcotics Control Bureau, Central Board of Excise and Customs and the Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence.

For latest Articles [Paper wise GS 1-4] and Solved papers join us @ https://t.me/UPSCexamNotes1

For solved

UPSC ESSAYS click here

GS Paper 1 click here

Gs Paper 2 click here

Gs paper 3 click here

GS paper 4 click here

Sociology click here

Entertainment click here

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: