[Solved] “An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples.
Poverty is pronounced deprivation in wellbeing. High poverty levels are synonymous with poor
quality of life, deprivation, malnutrition, illiteracy and low human resource development.
Economic growth is not the solution for eradicating poverty. Economic growth provides greater
command over goods and services however, this does not necessarily imply higher wellbeing for
everyone; the benefits of economic growth are never shared equally. Income allows an individual
to purchase commodities with which he or she generates various functioning. But all individuals
cannot convert commodities into functioning to the same degree.
• Thus, poverty should be viewed as the deprivation of basic capabilities rather than merely as low
level of income. Poverty encompasses not only material deprivation (measured by income or
consumption) but also many other forms of deprivations in different aspects of life such as
unemployment, ill health, lack of education, vulnerability, powerlessness, social exclusion and so on.
Poverty is present when basic capability failure arises.
• Therefore, Anti-poverty strategy should comprise of a wide range of programmes aimed to strengthen
and to generate more employment, create productive assets, impart technical and entrepreneurial
skills and raise the income level of the poor.
• Government should focus on improvement of Human infrastructure by means of the provision of
basic education and basic health care. Further, public investment in physical infrastructure should
be supplemented with it to improve the access to the resources to form the vicious cycle of
Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living. It can be defined objectively and applied consistently only in terms of the concept of relative deprivation and deprivation is a condition of lacking or not having something. Therefore, poverty and deprivation are closely related. So poverty is a multi-dimensional concept that encompasses not only economic deprivation, but also deprivation of opportunities as well as deprivation of basic needs such as health, education, housing etc.
To eradicate poverty, it is essential to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.
It is possible by ensuring adequate foods, education, skill sets, free healthcare services, and a job to fulfil their economic needs.
Recognising this, the government policies have shifted away from traditional poverty alleviation schemes to a more multipronged approach to end this process of deprivation.
- Healthcare: Essential healthcare service can alleviate the issues faced by the rural as well as urban population. National Health Mission — to provide universal access to equitable, affordable and quality health care service across rural and urban areas. The central and state government should implement the Ayushman Bharat program jointly to ensure proper health care services, cashless benefits, and an effective health insurance facility.
- Education: Proper education facilities can upgrade the situation of the next generation of the poor family that will ultimately improve the situation from every aspect. Schemes like Sava Shiksha Abhiyan and Right to Education Act and the New education policy could play a crucial role.
- Skill sets: The skill development process will enable them to secure a job to sustain their livelihood. Programs like Skill India Mission and the New education policy that also recommended vocational training from class six could provide momentum in the vision of the Skill India Program.
- Employment: Unskilled labour can also contribute to the development process. Schemes like MGNREGA ensures a hundred days of employment with wages in a year to the adult members of rural households.
The steps taken by the government are in the right direction and will go a long way in ending the process of deprivation if implemented effectively.
How to prevent people from deprivation?
- Targeted delivery of services
Poverty eradication cannot be taken up as a broad exercise without actually knowing the number of people that has to be targeted. By identifying the targeted beneficiaries we can ensure that schemes and measures benefits the needy and does not go in waste.
Ex: The PM Jan Arogya Yojana was targeted for families based on Socio-economic caste census and thus the government knew the range of its beneficiaries. This allowed government to allocate resources based on need and not just on assumptions.
- Reduce paperwork and procedures
Government schemes are usually stuck up in paperwork and red tape. This reduces its efficiency and makes it worthless. It is necessary to reduce the barriers so that people benefit from the services without having to put excessive efforts.
Ex: Linking gas subsidy to Jan Dhan accounts has helped government to transfer the money directly to bank accounts without having to rely on paperwork and procedural delays.
- Identification of essential commodities
The main condition for poverty to exist is that people cannot afford a certain commodity that is necessary in life. This makes poverty more relevant as people cannot lead a normal life with all basic amenities. It is thus necessary to identify and provide the essential needs.
Ex: Health and education are the major basic needs that is usually deprived from the poorest of sections. By providing them with these, we can ensure that basic features of life have been provided.
The following are the various deprivation which if removed will itself eradicate poverty.-
Elementary education- It is regarded as greatest gift which can empower an individual. For example- If poor child is educated it will help him to secure job in a economy which require skilled workers. This will help his whole family to break the vicious cycle of poverty.
Health Care facilities-In India expenses on medical emergency can push many family back into poverty as we do not have Universal Health Insurance facility. If they are provided with adequate health care facility which can reduce out of pocket expenses it will reduce recurrence of poverty.
Water and Sanitation- A family which do not have access to quality water and sanitation facilities will be more prone to disease. If earning member is ill it way cause hunger and abject poverty in family.
Political power- If proper representation is not provided to poor it will deprive them of policy support like economic and social entitlements.
They are deprived of food, education, expensive health service, clothing, shelter, and income.
Some times due to their financial weakness, they face social discrimination.
Unavailability of essential needs forces them to live an unhealthy lifestyle.
To eradicate poverty from India, the most necessary thing is to liberate the poor from the deprivation they always face. It is possible by ensuring adequate foods, education, skill sets, free healthcare services, and a job to fulfill their economical needs.
Healthcare: Essential healthcare service can alleviate the issues faced by the rural as well as urban population. The conditions of the rural health center are not that good to deliver proper healthcare services. For complicated heal issues, one has to go to the private hospital and the expense is totally out of reach to the poor. The central and state government should implement the Aayushman Bharat program jointly to ensure proper health care services, cashless benefits, and an effective health insurance facility.
Education: Proper education facilities can upgrade the situation of the next generation of the poor family that will ultimately improve the situation from every aspect. Schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and the new education policy could play a crucial role.
Skill sets: The skill development process will enable them to secure a job to sustain their livelihood. Programs like Skill India Mission and the new education policy that also recommended vocational training from class six could provide momentum in the vision of the Skill India Program.
Employment: Unskilled labor can also contribute to the development process. Schemes like MGNREGA ensures a hundred days of employment with wages in a year to the adult members of rural households.
To ensure essential needs to the poor, less paperwork and more implementation are necessary. Schemes like UDAY, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana need better implementation.
Focusing on improvement in all the mentioned sectors, the problem of poverty could be eradicated. And ultimately it will provide impetus to the Indian government’s flagship program Atma Nirbhar Bharat.
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