Indian urban communities have been confronting infrastructural disappointments lately particularly flooding in low lying regions. The present circumstance questions our readiness and metropolitan arranging measures. Expanding flooding has required dire measures to handle the issue.
- A considerable lot of India’s most crowded urban communities regularly face gigantic flooding due to abuse and abuse of land; open spaces, green zones and water bodies being obliterated by urbanization; all that looks cemented over for the sake of improvement; absence of flood models of creating catchments; insufficient land-use arranging controls; and nonattendance of measures not to allow the precipitation to become flood run-off.
- The flood in Hyderabad was ascribed to beneath standard metropolitan arranging, usurping of water bodies, less than impressive readiness, inefficacious metropolitan framework and strangely hefty rains because of the effect of environmental change.
- It is said that, fifty years prior, there were more than 2500 water bodies in Hyderabad, presently the number is under 250.
- The fundamental driver of flooding in Pune was development prospering and spreading unchecked, and obliteration of mountains. The width and the profundity of the Ambil Odha (stream) have been limited to a significant low limit.
Reasons for flooding of cities
- Encroachment of water body
As population of cities increase, there will be shortage of residential areas for people to live in. Large population encroach on the water bodies by building houses and colonies. This ultimately results in flooding during high rains.
- Improper drainage system
Normal drainage system of an area is competent to transport water out of the area during high rains but due to blocking of such water drainage, flooding events take place.
Ex: Blocking of Mithi river resulted in flooding of Mumbai City.
- Lack of urban planning
Urbanization in India is increasing at a drastic pace. Authorities are unable to make proper planning for handling such increase. This has resulted in cities unable to tackle high rains and falling victims to flooding.
- Inadequate Drainage Infrastructure: Cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai rely on a century-old drainage system, covering only a small part of the core city.
- Cities Becoming Impervious: Indian cities are becoming increasingly impervious to water, not just because of increasing built up but also because of the nature of materials used (hard, a non-porous construction material that makes the soil impervious).
- Poor Implementation of EIA: Even with provisions of rainwater harvesting, sustainable urban drainage systems, etc., in regulatory mechanisms like the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), adoption at the user end and enforcement agencies remains weak.
The Sustainable therapeutic measures
Holistic Engagement: Urban floods cannot be contained by the municipal authorities alone. Floods cannot be managed without concerted and focused investments of energy and resources.
The Metropolitan Development Authorities, National Disaster Management Authority, State revenue, and irrigation departments along with municipal corporations, should be involved in such work together.
Developing Sponge Cities: The idea of a sponge city is to make cities more permeable so as to hold and use the water which falls upon them.
Water Sensitive Urban Design: These methods take into consideration the topography, types of surfaces (permeable or impervious), natural drainage and leave very less impact on the environment.
Convergent Approach: These can all be delivered effectively through an urban mission along the lines of the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY), and Smart Cities Mission.
- Planning primary and non-underlying flood alleviation strategies reflecting conventional flood safeguards and seepage frameworks showing well disposed significance environmentally;
- The more the impenetrable surfaces we clear, the less the water invades and streams openly and three-dimensionally. It needs the dirt to be invaded. Quick urbanization needs to zero in on explicit soil the board rehearses;
- Each element which can move needs foundation to proceed with its or their normal stream. Water needs regular framework. Improvement should accept biological system esteems;
- Hard asphalts, which are not imperative to development, ought to be supplanted by man-made wetlands and downpour gardens, and re-examined;
- Where the progressions are impractical, the way of life of green rooftops or housetop nurseries ought to be energized.
- We as a whole ought to be exposed to the ethical measurement – no more interruption on the region and privileges of water. The word ‘infringement’ isn’t just implied for people.
Overburdened waste, unregulated development, no respect for the normal geography, and hydro-geomorphology all make metropolitan floods a man-made calamity.
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